Schisandra Chinensis at trace levels  1. Biological Significance Magnesium is used in the body primarily as an electrolyte and a mineral cofactor for enzymes.
Signs and symptoms[ edit ] Illustration depicting normal standing posture and osteoporosis Osteoporosis itself has no symptoms ; its main consequence is the increased risk of bone fractures. Osteoporotic fractures occur in situations where healthy people would not normally break a bone; they are therefore regarded as fragility fractures.
Typical fragility fractures occur in the vertebral columnribhip and wrist. Fractures[ edit ] Fractures are the most dangerous aspect of osteoporosis. Debilitating acute and chronic pain in the elderly is often attributed to fractures from osteoporosis and can lead to further disability and early mortality.
The most common osteoporotic fractures are of the wrist, spine, shoulder and hip. The symptoms of a vertebral collapse " compression fracture " are sudden back painoften with radicular pain shooting pain due to nerve root compression and rarely with spinal cord compression or cauda equina syndrome.
Multiple vertebral fractures lead to a stooped posture, loss of height, and chronic pain with resultant reduction in mobility.
Hip fracturein particular, usually requires prompt surgery, as serious risks are associated with it, such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolismand increased mortality.
Fracture risk calculators assess the risk of fracture based upon several criteria, including bone mineral densityage, smoking, alcohol usage, weight, and gender.
Falls risk[ edit ] The increased risk of falling associated with aging leads to fractures of the wrist, spine, and hip.
The risk of falling, in turn, is increased by impaired eyesight due to any cause e. Collapse transient loss of postural tone with or without loss of consciousness leads to a significant risk of falls; causes of syncope are manifold, but may include cardiac arrhythmias irregular heart beatvasovagal syncopeorthostatic hypotension abnormal drop in blood pressure on standing upand seizures.
Removal of obstacles and loose carpets in the living environment may substantially reduce falls. Those with previous falls, as well as those with gait or balance disorders, are most at risk. In addition, osteoporosis is a recognized complication of specific diseases and disorders.
Medication use is theoretically modifiable, although in many cases, the use of medication that increases osteoporosis risk may be unavoidable.
Caffeine is not a risk factor for osteoporosis. Women lose bone mass more rapidly than men. While osteoporosis occurs in people from all ethnic groups, European or Asian ancestry predisposes for osteoporosis. At least 30 genes are associated with the development of osteoporosis.
A small stature is also a nonmodifiable risk factor associated with the development of osteoporosis. A positive association exists between serum 1,dihydroxycholecalciferol levels and bone mineral density, while PTH is negatively associated with bone mineral density.
Many studies have associated smoking with decreased bone health, but the mechanisms are unclear. Tobacco smoking has been proposed to inhibit the activity of osteoblasts, and is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis.
Nutrition has an important and complex role in maintenance of good bone. Excess sodium is a risk factor. High blood acidity may be diet-related, and is a known antagonist of bone.
Imbalance of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fats is yet another identified risk factor. Research has found an association between diets high in animal protein and increased urinary calcium,    and have been linked to an increase in fractures. Bone remodeling occurs in response to physical stress, so physical inactivity can lead to significant bone loss.
In female endurance athletes, large volumes of training can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis. A strong association between cadmium and lead with bone disease has been established. Low-level exposure to cadmium is associated with an increased loss of bone mineral density readily in both genders, leading to pain and increased risk of fractures, especially in the elderly and in females.Overview Information Zinc is a mineral.
It is called an "essential trace element" because very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health. Importance Because of the aging population, osteoporotic fractures are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States.
Approximately 2 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in , and annual incidence is projected to increase to more than 3 .
Introduction. Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Basic Description. Calcium is a very important mineral in human metabolism, making up about % of an adult human's body weight.
In addition to its widely known role in bone structure, calcium is used to help control muscle and nerve function, as well as to manage acid/base balance in our blood stream. Exercise. Childhood and adolescence are particularly valuable times to improve bone mass through exercise [92,93,94,95,96,,].
Higher levels of leisure time, sport activity, and household chores and fewer hours of sitting daily were associated with a significantly . Introduction. Magnesium, an abundant mineral in the body, is naturally present in many foods, added to other food products, available as a dietary supplement, and present in .