AFA4 - October Defending Australia The fourth issue of Australian Foreign Affairs examines the challenge of defending Australia at a time of regional uncertainty and fast-changing military technology.
Initially used to describe a happy-go-lucky character capable of battling through hard times, the term was employed after World War II to distinguish those born domestically from "new" immigrants from western and southern Europe.
The term continues to have meaning as a label for Australians representing their country. Among some sectors of society, "Aussie" is regarded as Eurocentric and anachronistic in a nation officially committed to ethnic and racial inclusiveness.
The name "Australia" was formally adopted and popularized in by the British governor of the colony of New South Wales.
The title was suggested in and derives from the Latin terra australis incognita "the unknown south land" which had been used by mapmakers for centuries before European colonization. Since its days as a British colony Australia has developed a complex national culture with immigrants from many parts of the world as well as an indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.
The strong sense of societal and historical distinctiveness among the different states and territories Global media flows in australian culture not developed into major subcultural diversity based on geographic regions.
Inbicentennial events were promoted officially as the "celebration of a nation. However, the divisions within the nation continue to find expression in public life, arising from social differences in race, ethnicity, social class, and gender. Australia is an island continent in the Southern Hemisphere, lying between Antarctica and Asia.
Much of the continent is low, flat, and dry. The area of the continent is 2. Although the impact of environmental variation is highly evident in the traditional cultures of indigenous Australians, it has not been as strong a factor in immigrant cultures.
The most significant lifestyle differences are affected primarily by variations in climate.
The majority of the population lives in urban areas around the coast. The ACT was created inand the city of Canberra was designed by an American landscape architect in The Commonwealth Parliament relocated there from Melbourne in Canberra has a population of overand is the largest inland city.
According to the census, the total population was just over By the population had risen to In the yearthat number is expected to reach 19 million. Roughly 2 percent of the population consists of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people, descendants of the original inhabitants of the continent before European colonization.
This sector of the population has a higher birthrate than do the others, but also has a higher mortality rate and lower life expectancy. In the population self-identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander was , probably about the same as in ; many of those people have both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal ancestry.
The dominant language since colonization has been English, with little multi-lingualism among the majority population. Nevertheless, both the diverse Aboriginal groups and many immigrants continue to use languages other than English.
Before the European invasion there were around Aboriginal languages, most of which probably had distinct dialects. Perhaps ninety of these languages are still spoken, with around twenty being spoken fluently by indigenous children.
The decline in the use of Aboriginal languages is due to the effects of colonization. Among some Aboriginal groups, especially in parts of the north, a number of distinctive creole dialects mix Aboriginal languages with English.
Apart from indigenous languages, some twelve major community languages are spoken at home by at least fifty thousand speakers. Melbourne is the most multilingual city. Migrant groups want their languages to be maintained through government policies such as the Languages Other Than English LOTE program in secondary schools.
Australian English probably originated as a combination of British regional dialects used by groups of convicts and others who came to the colonies. Australian English is different from British and American English but does not vary much regionally.
Various social factors affect accent and style, including social class, education, gender women tend to use the cultivated variety more than men doand age.
The flag is dark blue with the British Union Jack in the upper left corner, the seven— pointed white Commonwealth star below the Union Jack, and to the right five white stars representing the Southern Cross constellation.
The national animal emblem is the kangaroo, the floral emblem is the golden wattle tree, and the national colors are green and gold. The national coat of arms is a shield supported by a kangaroo and an emu amid branches of wattle.
Until the national anthem was the British "God Save the Queen," but it was changed to "Advance Australia Fair" as part of a movement toward asserting greater separation from the legacy of the colonial power.
These formal symbols have assisted in the establishment of a national consciousness. A highly symbolic national event held annually is Anzac Day which marks the landing and subsequent gallant defeat of Australian troops at Gallipoli during World War I.
Throughout the country war memorials and monuments acknowledge the achievements and sacrifices made by Australians in that and other wars. Flora and fauna native to the continent, such as the kangaroo, koala, emu, and wattle, are symbols of the national ethos, especially in international and national contexts, although this is also the case for unique buildings such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House.
The beach is recognized as a symbol of the national culture.Willie is the seasoned leader of MediaCom’s Australia and New Zealand operations. He is an accomplished technologist, strategist and leader of people and holds an intimate knowledge of MediaCom’s people, culture and product.
culture manifests itself in the migration process for three groups of actors: the migrants, those remaining in the sending areas, and people already living in the recipient locations.
The topics vary widely. Deborah Stevenson Professor, Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney Verified email at lausannecongress2018.com Andy Ruddock Monash University Verified email at lausannecongress2018.com Stuart Cunningham Professor of Media and Communication, Queensland University of Technology Verified email at .
argue that Australia's boat people problem needed to be addressed at its source, ie by dealing with the reasons that some countries become sources of large numbers of refugees (see Complexities in the Refugee Problem, and Solving the Global Refugee Crisis, );.
Rethinking international TV flows research in the age of Netflix In: Television and New Media, 19, - ; Lobato, R. ().
Streaming services and the changing global geography of television In: Handbook on Geographies of Technology, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, United Kingdom; Lobato, R.,Meese, J.
. Foreword Despite Brexit and the rise of President Trump’s “America First,” the global economy is doing remarkably well. China’s GDP growth is clipping along at 6%, and while the UK economy is a little weaker, the Eurozone is seeing.