Marco, who took after his outgoing and adventurous father, embraced the newness he discovered along his journey, related to people as equals, and survived strenuous travels, violence, illness and inclement weather that would have stopped other men in their tracks and sent them packing back home several of their traveling companions did just that, others perished! When you see representations of Marco Polo, none made during his lifetime, you see a sturdy hulk of a man whom today we would say looks like a rugby player, or an adventurer. This physique seems the most likely. Only later, when Marco's story was reprinted and illustrated for a mass audience, was his likeness changed into a romanticized waif.
An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not and cannot exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly. The published editions of his book either rely on single manuscripts, blend multiple versions together, or add notes to clarify, for example in the English translation by Henry Yule.
The English translation by A. Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic.
Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Langues d'Oila lingua franca of crusaders and western merchants in the Orient. A year later, they went to Ukek  and continued to Bukhara.
There, an envoy from the Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khanwho had never met Europeans. Kublai received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system.
Kublai Khan requested that an envoy bring him back oil of the lamp in Jerusalem. They followed the suggestion of Theobald Visconti, then papal legate for the realm of Egyptand returned to Venice in or to await the nomination of the new Pope, which allowed Marco to see his father for the first time, at the age of fifteen or sixteen.
They sailed to Acreand then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz. The Polos wanted to sail straight into China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland through the Silk Roaduntil reaching Kublai's summer palace in Shangdunear present-day Zhangjiakou.
In one instance during their trip, the Polos joined a caravan of travelling merchants whom they crossed paths with. Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by banditswho used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them. The Polos managed to fight and escape through a nearby town, but many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved.
It is possible that he became a government official;  he wrote about many imperial visits to China's southern and eastern provinces, the far south and Burma. They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Kublai died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler.
InKublai's great-nephew, then ruler of Persiasent representatives to China in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party—which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China on a fleet of 14 junks.
The party sailed to the port of Singapore travelled north to Sumatra and sailed west to the Point Pedro port of Jaffna under Savakanmaindan and to Pandyan of Tamilakkam. The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people not including the crew in the convoy only eighteen had survived including all three Polos.
For example, the opening introduction in The Book of Marvels to "emperors and kings, dukes and marquises" was lifted straight out of an Arthurian romance Rustichello had written several years earlier, and the account of the second meeting between Polo and Kublai Khan at the latter's court is almost the same as that of the arrival of Tristan at the court of King Arthur at Camelot in that same book.
Polo had at times refuted the 'marvelous' fables and legends given in other European accounts, and despite some exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts have relatively few of the descriptions of irrational marvels.
In many cases where present mostly given in the first part before he reached China, such as mentions of Christian miracleshe made a clear distinction that they are what he had heard rather than what he had seen. It is also largely free of the gross errors found in other accounts such as those given by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta who had confused the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and other waterways, and believed that porcelain was made from coal.
Such detailed descriptions are not found in other non-Chinese sources, and their accuracy is supported by archaeological evidence as well as Chinese records compiled after Polo had left China.
His accounts are therefore unlikely to have been obtained second hand. His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou during the second half of the 13th century.
Seal of the Mongol ruler Ghazan in a letter to Pope Boniface VIIIwith an inscription in Chinese seal script Omissions Skeptics have long wondered if Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in his book.
While Polo describes paper money and the burning of coal, he fails to mention the Great Wall of ChinateaChinese characterschopsticksor footbinding.
Haeger argued the Marco Polo might not have visited Southern China due to the lack of details in his description of southern Chinese cities compared to northern ones, while Herbert Franke also raised the possibility that Marco Polo might not have been to China at all, and wondered if he might have based his accounts on Persian sources due to his use of Persian expressions.
Haw argued that the Great Walls were built to keep out northern invaders, whereas the ruling dynasty during Marco Polo's visit were those very northern invaders.
They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties.
The Muslim traveler Ibn Battutawho asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time.Map of Marco Polo's travels (Some of these places may not exist today).
Wikimedia, CC BY-SA In China, the Polos were well received by Kublai khan. As Marco Polo immersed himself in Chinese culture, and was a gifted linguist, he quickly gained favor with the Great Khan. Operated by Merchant Marco Hotel Management Co., Ltd, Merchant Marco Hotel is a four-star business hotel with European style, which obtained many awards as "Best Quality Hotel", "Ten Best Star Hotel", "Tourists Satisfied Service Enterprise" and so on.
"The son of a traveling merchant, Marco Polo spent his early years among the ports of Venice, Italy.
As a young man, he headed eastward with his father and . Polo, Marco Marco Polo's travels to Asia (–95), immortalized in his Travels of Marco Polo. Marco, his father, and his uncle set out from Venice in and reached China in The Polos spent a total of 17 years in China.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad ( – ) was a member of the Levantine Brotherhood of Assassins who served as their Mentor from until his death in During his tenure as Mentor, through the knowledge of an Apple of Eden, Altaïr made several discoveries and inventions that greatly helped the.
Marco Polo (i/ˈmɑrkoʊ ˈpoʊloʊ/; Italian pronunciation: [ˈmarko ˈpɔːlo]; c – January 8–9, ) was an Italian merchant traveler from the Republic of Venice whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China.