Each of these aspects requires elaboration. Nations and national identity may be defined in terms of common origin, ethnicity, or cultural ties, and while an individual's membership in the nation is often regarded as involuntary, it is sometimes regarded as voluntary.
History[ edit ] Spainit has been observed, is a nation-state born out of religious struggle mainly between Catholicism and Islambut also against Judaism and, to a lesser extent, Protestantism. The Reconquista against Al Andalus ending inthe establishment of the Spanish Inquisition and the expulsion of Jews were highly relevant in the union of Castile and Aragon under the Catholic Monarchs Isabel and Fernandofollowed by the persecution and eventual expulsion of the Moriscos in The Counter-Reformation — was especially strong in Spain and the Inquisition was not definitively abolished untilthus keeping Islam, Judaism, Protestantism and parts of Enlightenment at bay for most of its history.
Antiquity and late Antiquity[ edit ] See also: According to a medieval legendthe apostle James was the first to spread Christianity in the Roman Iberian Peninsula. There is no factual evidence of this but he later became the patron saint of Spaniards and Portuguese, originating the Way of St James.
Other later myths include the Seven Apostolic Men. There is some archaeological evidence of Christianity slowly penetrating the Peninsula from Rome and Roman Mauretania via major cities and ports, especially Tarragonasince the early 2nd century.
The Paleo-Christian Necropolis of Tarragonawith 2, discovered tombs, dates back to the second half of the 3rd century.
Eventually, Emperor Constantine — converted the entire Roman Empire and Christianity was thus established as the only official religion. This Christianity was already an early form of Catholicism. The 7th-century Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave As Rome declined, Germanic tribes invaded most of the lands of the former empire.
In the years following the Visigoths —- who had converted to Arian Christianity around —- occupied what is now Spain and Portugal.
The Visigothic Kingdom established its capital in Toledo ; it reached its high point during the reign of Leovigild Visigothic rule led to a brief expansion of Arianism in Spain, however the native population remained staunchly Catholic.
The Council of Lerida in constrained the clergy and extended the power of law over them under the blessings of Rome. The multiple Councils of Toledo definitively established what would be later known as the Catholic Church in Spain and contributed to define Catholicism elsewhere.
Umayyad conquest of HispaniaAl-Andalusand Reconquista By the early 8th century, the Visigothic kingdom had fragmented and the fragments were in disarray, bankrupt and willing to accept external help to fight each other.
During this period the number of Muslims increased greatly through the migration of Arabs and Berbers, and the conversion of local Christians to Islam known as Muladis or Muwalladun with the latter forming the majority of the Islamic-ruled area by the end of the 10th century.
Most Christians who remained adopted Arabic culture, and these Arabized Christians became known as Mozarabs. While under the status of dhimmis the Christian and Jewish subjects had to pay higher taxes than Muslims and could not hold positions of power over Muslims.
The era of Muslim rule before is often considered a "Golden Age" for the Jews as Jewish intellectual and spiritual life flourished in Spain.
Here they established the great pilgrimage centre of Santiago de Compostela.The Spanish of the 16th century are now nearly as remote and exotic as the Aztecs and Incas themselves.
Conquering Granada and converting the Moors was of a piece with conquering America and converting the Indians. Frequent parades along with new rituals and ceremonies—and a new flag—provided popular occasions for expressing a spirit of American nationalism.
The new nation operated under the very weak national government set up by the Articles of Confederation and most Americans put loyalty to their state ahead of loyalty to the nation.
Moderate nationalism is less demanding than classical nationalism and sometimes goes under the name of “patriotism.” (A different usage, again, reserves “patriotism” for valuing of civic community and loyalty to state, in contrast to nationalism, centered around ethnic-cultural communities).
Former Mexican President Vicente Fox and Nigel Farage, the former United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) leader, debated the merits of nationalism and globalism at the University of Maryland. Catholic Christianity is the largest religion in Spain, but practical secularization is strong.
Only 3% of Spaniards consider religion as one of their three most important values, even lower than the 5% European average. The Spanish Constitution of abolished Catholicism as the official state religion, while recognizing the role it plays in Spanish .
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