Critical and Biographical Studies 1. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Helene Sintes Camus, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. Shortly after the outbreak of WWI, when Camus was less than a year old, his father was recalled to military service and, on October 11,died of shrapnel wounds suffered at the first battle of the Marne. As a child, about the only thing Camus ever learned about his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution.
Bombing History — including U. This bombardment occurred from naval ships offshore as well as from fighter-bombers in the air. This quickly became a revolutionary war where the majority of the people were adamantly opposed and hostile to any continued occupation by outside powers, whether they were from Japan, the Soviet Union, or the United States.
A combination of factors contributed to the U. It is important to look at the historical context of use of bombing and assess the patterns of its use and the mind-set behind it. Aerial bombardment — first known occurrence was in over Venice, Italy Aerial bombardments are first known to have occurred in U.s.
history and government thematic essays Austria sent time-bomb filled balloons over Venice, Italy. Also inthe British, French and Germans acquired their first military aircraft.
Turkish pilots used airplanes as a source of bombs, dropping explosives on Bulgarian troops during the Balkan wars. Noncombatants were murdered ruthlessly, including destruction of a funeral parlor and a hospital.
The Italians showed no mercy. Bombings tend to cause indiscriminate casualties no matter how careful the bombardiers claim they are, or how precise they claim their technology.
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Often it has been said, incorrectly, that the first instance of bombing of civilian populations was committed by German Luftwaffe planes the Condor Legion on Monday, April 26,destroying much of the small undefended city of Guernica, Spain pop.
Guernica had special symbolic significance as it was considered the spiritual capital of the autonomous spirited Basque region.
Flying under the command of the Spanish Nationalist Government of General Francisco Franco, the German planes dropped 5, explosive and incendiary bombs on market day during a three-hour period, destroying houses in the center city, or seventy percent of its housing stock.
Surrounding Basque villages in the region of northern Spain were also destroyed during the Spanish Civil War. Casualty figures in Guernica cannot be precise since all records were destroyed, but the Basque government claimed minimum numbers of 1, dead and wounded.
Dramatic Escalation of Bombings The pattern of bombings escalated after where countless civilian casualties became routine. General Francisco Franco, who had founded the Spanish Foreign Legion inhad conducted a ruthless occupation against Moroccans until the German air force moved his forces to Spain at the beginning of the civil war in The earlier defeat of the Spanish military at Sheshuan was nothing that Franco would forget.
Sheshuan was bombed to ruins with most of its inhabitants murdered from the air with remaining survivors mostly maimed and blinded.
And this massacre was assisted by a squadron of volunteer U. American fliers mercenaries who had joined The French Flying Corps, who in turn, with the Spanish, planned the bombing. Franco would use the brutal occupation of Morocco, and the total destruction through bombing of Sheshuan, as the model that would guide his forty-year occupation of Spain Sheshuan in effect laid the foundation for the relentless bombing committed during the Spanish Civil War, symbolized by the destruction of the Basque capital at Guernica in Though the United States was not the first country to use indiscriminate bombings, as can be seen from the above record, it subsequently became the master of relentless bombings where millions of civilians were cumulatively murdered in Germany and Japan during World War II; then in Korea in the early s; subsequently in Laos, Cambodia, and Viet Nam in Southeast Asia, early s; Libya in ; Panama in ; Iraq, to present; Serbia-Kosovo in mid-to-late s; Afghanistan, to present; Pakistan, starting inbut intensely drone bombed since First Use of U.
Air Power First Use of U. A aerial bombing, B aerial combat, C aerial reconnaissance support of ground troops, D airplane hit by hostile ground fire. It is not known if civilians were present on the ground where and when the bombing was occurring.
On November 30,two U. The first use of U.
The planes were on reconnaissance and photography missions for the ground forces. Other accounts indicate that General Victoriano Huerta, who forcefully succeeded to the Mexican Presidency after assassinating the popular President General Francisco Madero in Mexico City inwas backed by Dutch Royal Shell and British oil cartel interests in Mexico, and was receiving arms from Germany, and that Wilson landed troops at Vera Cruz to intercept those arms.
So before WWI began, British and German interests in Mexican oil were in collusion to insure business as usual for the cartels. Changes in Haitian leadership inperceived as a threat to long standing American interests, greatly alarmed U. President Woodrow Wilson who quickly sent an initial contingent of U.
Marines to Port-au-Prince on July 28, which quickly grew to a force of 2,[xxi] prodded by U. Haitian Indigenous armed resistance increased during the periodand was met by the first known application of U. Marines, excitedly using air bombings and strafings to support troops on the ground, killed Peralte and rousted the cacos by March Franck, and it is to this fact rather than to the boasted marksmanship of the marines that he attributes the deaths of 3, blacks and of only twelve whites.
Franck was a noted traveler and authority on the West Indies and he had been in Haiti in January on a tour of the Caribbean for The Century Magazine. Marines, torture had been practiced, and rigid censorship imposed, Haitian freedom…had been destroyed by the U. Oklahoma, May 31 — June 1, Tulsa, Oklahoma was the scene of the second known use of U.
According to survivors, the Oklahoma National Guard used airplanes to fire bomb the Greenwood section of Tulsa in a massacre of Blacks.The world’s first and largest educational marketplace with more than two million original teacher-created resources available for use today.
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