This is intended as a reflection on peace, its cultivation and its greater significance. International Peace Daywhich is celebrated on the 21st of September each year, is a highly symbolic and value rich event. In order to engage in a meaningful discussion on peace, the subject needs to be contextualised and its duality with war explored.
Table of Contents Introduction However, the legacy of post-Cold War interventions remains disputed, as well as its effectiveness as an instrument to provide peace and stability to conflict zones. This essay aims to address the question of how successful humanitarian interventions are by critically analyzing the case studies of Somalia and northern Iraq It will argue that although the humanitarian interventions helped to limit the hardship of endangered populations, they failed in building a long standing cooperation and stability in the regions affected, due a lack of political will, misappreciation of the situation and the employ of ineffective strategies.
Defining success Assessing the success or failure of a humanitarian intervention is a complex task due to the multidimensional characteristics of these operations.
He also points out some questions to be answered in order to evaluate the outcomes of an intervention, such as whether the population aided was the most needed; if the efforts were redundant or if the type of assistance delivered was appropriate.
For instance, the US led intervention in Iraq in arguably undermined the credibility of humanitarian interventions as a policy option due its misinterpretation of UN resolutions and the allegations of humanitarian purposes.
This essay will employ the cognitive dissonance hypothesis7 to assess the long-term contribution of humanitarian interventions for the building of stability and the solution of conflicts. This argument is particularly helpful to understanding the failure of some interventions and why in several occasions there was a resurgence of instability and conflict after the end of the humanitarian campaign.
The response from Saddam's army was brutal. With the support of aircrafts, heavy weaponry and tanks, the government forces recovered the cities under the control of rebels, making up to 4 Seybolt,Taylor B. Not a Humanitarian Intervention, 1 Januaryavailable at: As the army progressed, over 1.
People died at rates as high as per day and a minimum of deaths is estimated for the period from 29 March to 24 May In terms of lives saved, the operation was highly successful, as over Kurdish were saved from a probable death.
Moreover, the cooperation between military and civilian relief agencies was noteworthy and unprecedented. London,pp. However, with the lack of interest from the international community on the Kurdish issue and the precarious situation of Bagdad, by mid- Kurdish factions were fighting against each other, indicating the failure of the UN Guard Contingent, the mission that followed the Operation Provide Comfort, in reaching a consensus that could provide stability for the region.
Somalia Civil war, allied with the famine caused by severe draughts and the war itself were the ingredients in this humanitarian crisis. But the situation in Somalia was far more complex than in northern Iraq, with a myriad of clans fighting against each other and against the interveners, and despite the fact that in some periods up to Estimates of lives saved during the operations goes from one million to none at all.
Washington, DC,p. Regardless the lack of consensus about the number of lives saved, it is accepted that the operations Provide Relief and Restore Hope were successful in backing the transport and distribution of aid by the humanitarian organizations acting in the country. However, in relation to the political outcome of the intervention and its long-term legacy, the failure was substantial.
The UNITAF mandate was perceived as a threat by the warlords, what increased the opposition and reduced the bare cooperation. From mid general anarchy spread across the country and relief organizations became a target of violent attacks. According to the cognitive dissonance hypothesis, the failure to recognize the social structure and mechanisms of the segmented clan system led to the utilization of ineffective strategies that contributed to exacerbate the division among local factions.
As the population perceived the intervention as illegitimate, they had little interest in participating in the peace-building efforts. On the other hand, no meaningful efforts were made to make Somalis active in the peace-building process by the UN consecutive missions.An Annotated Bibliography of Child Maltreatment & Child Welfare Research: conceptual frameworks and best practices into the ―real world‖ of practice settings.
This using a statewide sample of children reunified between and in Rhode Island.
human conscience; for others it has been an alarming breach of an international state order dependent on the sovereignty of states and the inviolability of their territory. For some, again, Commissioners as to what is politically achievable in the world as we know it today.
We want no more Rwandas, and we believe that the adoption of the. Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts (including social conflicts), with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition.
World order refers to the creation of global relationships and maintenance of world peace. It essentially governs the relationships between nation-states and other global participants, to avoid international anarchy and resolving the conflicts that arise.
The responsibility to protect is humanitarian intervention by another name Introduction The statement refers to the term responsibility to protect, also known as R2P (used interchangeably in this document), which is a doctrine of international law that has emerged in the relatively recent past, since , the norms of which are still being established.1 The term humanitarian intervention has a long history 2 5/5(1).
This essay will employ the cognitive dissonance hypothesis7 to assess the long-term contribution of humanitarian interventions for the building of stability and the solution of conflicts.